(一)韩国汽车行业发展的几个阶段
韩国的汽车工业从上世纪50年代开始出现,到现在大致可以分为以下几个阶段:
1、萌芽阶段(十九世纪50年代)
最早的韩国汽车主要起源于朝鲜战争中的军车,以及一些修理军车的店铺。
2、起步阶段(60年代)
韩国政府于1962年4月制定了汽车工业发展计划,并于1962年制定《汽车工业保护法》,这标志着韩国汽车工业正式起步发展。
在这个过程中,政府还出台了较多的优惠鼓励政策,汽车企业的生产形式也多以与西方合资的汽车生产会社为主要形式存在。
3、发展自主品牌阶段(70年代)
这一阶段是韩国汽车发展的重要阶段。

韩国汽车企业发展道路
图表 韩国主要汽车事件
4、开拓国际市场阶段(70年代末到80年代中期)
1976年,“现代”生产的开始出口到南美和中东等地方
韩国1980年出现经济负增长。在此种形势下,为提高汽车工业的发展动力,韩国于1981年2月公布了《汽车工业合理化措施》, 扶持整个汽车行业。随着整个行业竞争能力的提升,韩国车开始逐渐,打入国际市场。1986年,韩国汽车猛增到59.2万辆,占世界汽车总产量的1.3%,从而使韩国成为世界第11位汽车生产国。当年,韩国出口汽车达29.2万辆,占世界汽车出口量的1.9%,成为世界第9位的汽车出口国。
5、迈向汽车生产强国阶段(80年代中期~90年代初)
80年代中期以后,韩国政府逐渐开放了汽车市场,鼓励汽车生产会社之间展开竞争,优胜劣汰,促进汽车工业向更高水平发展。
6、重组阶段
1997年金融危机爆发,经济危机重创了韩国经济,韩国汽车也被迫进行重组,1997年,双龙汽车因资不抵债被大宇收购;起亚汽车也被现代集团收购。到1999年,大宇也被通用车收购。
进入2000年后,现代-起亚集团逐渐摆脱了“低价劣质汽车”的标签,由一个区域品牌,旋风般上升为全球第六大汽车生产商。
2009年以后,现代集团的市场份额再次进入加速上升期。
(二)韩国汽车行业发展的几个特点:
1、政府支持
韩国政府从一开始就采取了封闭本国汽车市场的做法,并且从技术到产业的各个层次对汽车行业进行扶持。为了扶持本国汽车工业,用了20多年时间才把进口汽车关税降到了较低的水平。韩国政府直到1987年对进口轿车还加收60%的关税。后来,韩国汽车逐步成长起来之后,也是为了加入WTO,韩国政府才大幅降低关税,到1994年减低为10%,到1995年正式加入WTO时,关税已经降低为8%。
在这个过程中,最典型的就是鼓励使用国产车的做法,除了一些特殊做法如对使用进口车主进行税收抽查外,在社会范围内形成使用国产车等于爱国的舆论环境也是一个重要做法,政府在其中的引导处处可见。
2、通过技术合作走向独立自主
韩国汽车在技术上也是采取了合作开发的范式,例如韩国现代最早就是购买了日本三菱的发动机技术,并在此基础上逐步研发出自主技术。
3、多采取家族经营方式
韩国汽车公司多是会社的形式所有,如韩国现代就是被郑氏家族经营,这种家族制的经营模式在公司从小到大的状大过程中发挥了很大优势,执行力非常强。同时,在公司做大以后,家族经营的一些不透明之处和过于追求效率的一些不规范做法也开始显现,最大的事件就是行贿丑闻的爆发。
4、由追求“量”到注重“质”
韩国车在2000年之前也已经进入美国市场,但是口碑明显差于其他品牌,主要原因是之前的韩国汽车太注重量的增长,忽略了质的提高,后来韩国车在油耗和工艺质量方面有了长期的改进,现在已经接近于日本车的水平,也是2009年后市场份额再有突飞猛进的一个主要原因。

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